Crystal Technology Bangladesh Limited is committed to maintaining quality services. To uphold its commitment towards clients, Crystal Technology Bangladesh Limited follows a standard project life cycle for software development. The project life cycle (PLC) is a collection of logical stages or phases that maps the life of a project from its beginning to its end in order to define, build, and deliver the output of a project – that is product, service, or information system. Each phase should provide one or more deliverables. A deliverable is a tangible and verifiable product of work (i.e. project plan, design specifications, delivered system, etc.). Deliverables at the end of each phase also provide tangible benefits throughout the project and serve to define the work and resources needed for each phase.
Projects should be broken up into phases to make the project more manageable and reduce risks. Phase-exits, stage-gates, or kill-points are the phase–end review of key deliverables that correct any errors or problems. Although the deliverables at the end of a stage or phase are usually approved before proceeding to the next stage, fast tracking or starting the next phase before obtaining approval can sometimes reduce the project’s time. Overlapping of phases can be risky and should only be done when the risk is deemed acceptable.
Although projects follow a project life cycle, the development of new products, services, or information systems follows a product life cycle. The most common product life cycle in IT is the systems development life cycle (SDLC), which represents the sequential phases or stages an information system follows throughout its useful life. The SDLC establishes a logical order or sequence in which the system development activities occur and indicates whether to proceed from one system development activity to the next (McConnell 1996). Although there are variations in SDLC, the life cycle depicted in Figure 2.2 includes generally accepted activities and phases associated with systems development. It should be kept in mind that these concepts are generally covered in great detail in books and courses on systems analysis and design. For some, this may be a quick review, while for others it may provide a general background for understanding how IT project management and information system development activities support one another. Planning, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance and support are the five basic phases in the systems development life cycle.